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battle of sedan map

[56] The bulk of the 174 artillery pieces available to the French at Sedan were concentrated on the 2nd Panzer Division's front. One the three great cavalry charge at Sedan led by . Sedan was a centre of cloth production, which was started under Cardinal Mazarin. On August 30, troops under Prince George of Saxony attacked and defeated the French at the Battle of Beaumont. The Battle of Sedan, by Captain Fitz-George, London, Stanford, 1871 Report of the operations of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War during the Franco-German war, 1870-1871, together with a statement of receipts and expenditure and maps, reports, and correspondence, London, Harrison, 1871. [54] The Großdeutschland Regiment had now penetrated 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) into the French defences. Fliegerkorps 1,770 missions. In the last half of the 19th century, Prussia was on the rise under the leadership of Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck. [8] The 2nd Panzer Division, under the command of Generalleutnant (Lieutenant General) Rudolf Veiel, had to hand 45 Panzer I, 115 Panzer II, 59 Panzer III and 32 Panzer IVs. [47] Loerzer and Richthofen committed two Stuka units to the attack. [8] In total Guderian could muster 60,000 men, 22,000 vehicles, 771 tanks and 141 artillery pieces. 265. [55] The last bunker to surrender did so at 22:40 hours on 13 May. Map of the battle of Strasbourg . Instead, Guderian requested maximum support from the Luftwaffe. X Corps, with the 12th and 64th Reconnaissance Battalions, elements of the 71st Infantry Division, 205th Infantry Regiment, the 4th Tank Battalion were also to join the attack. Map of the battle of Sedan. It succeeded, but the following crossing failed as machine gun fire came from another flanking position that had not been spotted. The advance of the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions had assisted his progress. Public Domain French Defeat. The men of the division lacked the confidence and will to fight when the battle took place. That year, General André-Gaston Prételat took command of manoeuvres which created a scenario whereby the German Army launched an assault with seven divisions, including four motorised infantry divisions and two tank brigades (the type of the remaining three are not given). Their analysis concluded that what appeared to be strong fortified positions were just the construction sites of half-built bunkers that were, to all intents and purposes, empty shells. [76][77], Contributing to their problems, the French lacked mobile tanks and offensively-intended tanks. The 69th Infantry Regiment was kept in reserve to follow the 86th as reinforcements. [51] By the time the error was realised, most of the artillerymen and infantrymen had abandoned their heavy equipment. Joined by VII Saxon Corps which pressed towards the village of La Moncelle to the north along Givonne creek, the Bavarians fought through the early morning hours. 20,000 men300 tanks174 artillery pieces[3] The Germans captured the Meuse bridges at Sedan allowing them to pour forces across the river. [79] Only 10 French tanks, out of 40, remained. Several Panzers were knocked out. Add to Cart. By 12 May, units of the German Army Group B were closing on Rotterdam and Amsterdam, while in central Belgium the Germans were close to reaching the Dyle river east of Brussels. Marshal Philippe Pétain described them as "impenetrable". These units came from Luftflotte 2 and Jagdfliegerführer 3 (Fighter Leader 3). The French committed the 3d Company, 49th Tank Battalion; 1st Company, 45th Tank Battalion; and the 2d Company, 4th Tank Battalion; the 1st Battalion, 67th Infantry Regiment; and the 1st Company, 51st Infantry Regiment. Battle of Mars-La-Tour or Rezonville . [53], The capture of Sedan and the expansion of the bridgeheads alarmed the French who called for a total effort against the bridgeheads at Sedan, to isolate the three Panzer Divisions. The Battle of Sedan was fought September 1, 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). The Red Army had temporarily halted it's advance 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin along the Oder River. Both divisions were short of anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns, a critical short-coming. However, the offensive by Army Group B was a diversion. Of that number, 7,000 were given to the cavalry divisions that were intended to delay a German advance through southern Belgium as well as to blockhouse points along the Franco–Belgian border. [8] He could also call upon 1,470 aircraft. One of the premier infantry regiments, the 213th Infantry Regiment, was removed from the line altogether and was replaced with the 331st Regiment. In the Netherlands the Germans made steady progress. Map of the battle of Lemans . The gunners, the backbone of the defences, had abandoned their positions by the time the German ground assault had begun. The division consisted mainly of reservists, most of who were over the age of 30. [33] Most of the air support over Sedan was to be provided by Luftflotte 3 (Air Fleet 3). The Second Army built 52,000 cubic metres (1,800,000 cu ft) of concrete fortifications along its front, but very little in the Sedan sector. 264 armoured cars began to dismount in the bridgeheads. [4], No. The results were much the same. The French Imperial Guard with Prussian prisoners at Sedan . After preparatory raids, the medium and dive-bombers were to smash the French defences in a concentrated blow lasting 20 minutes. The division's commanding officer, General Lafontaine, put more faith into fortifications than training, as he believed it would compensate for the weakness of the division. Moreover, the blow would strike at the dividing line between the French Ninth Army and the French Second Army. $139.36 USD $163.95 USD. [15], The French counter-attacked the German bridgeheads from 15 to 17 May, but the offensives fell victim to delay and confusion. [6] To the north and south of Sedan, the French X Corps and French XXXXI Corps (at the artillery fortress at Charleville-Mézières) could also add their artillery and shell Guderian's Panzer units as they crossed the bridgeheads. Defeated at Gravelotte on August 18, Marshal François Achille Bazaine's Army of the Rhine fell back to Metz, where it was quickly besieged by elements of the Prussian First and Second Armies. Several batteries were stuck in traffic in the Ardennes and he could not rely on the artillery batteries of his Panzer Divisions only. When intelligence did filter through, it was out-of-date. Consequently, it arrived late at Donchery, after the 1st and 10th Panzer Divisions had initiated their assaults across the Meuse. [58], In the central sector, at Gaulier, the Germans began moving 3.7 cm Pak 36 light infantry field artillery across the Meuse to provide support to infantry across the river. Little attempt was made to improve the poor combat quality of the division. To supplement his air support, Guderian stripped most of his Panzer Divisions of their artillery, which he then positioned directly opposite Gaulier. During the Battle of Maastricht in the Netherlands, the Groupement de Bombardement (Bomber Groups, or GB) had its squadrons reduced. The Battle of Sedan or Second Battle of Sedan (12–15 May 1940) took place in the Second World War during the Battle of France in 1940. The commander of X Corps' artillery, Colonel Poncelet, had tried to keep his units where they were, but had reluctantly ordered a retreat. Still in command of the army, Wimpffen countermanded the order and his men continued to resist. [10] Military historians agree that the Battle at Sedan sealed the fate of Belgium and France. The battle of Stonne took place between 15 and 17 May, and the town changed hands 17 times. The contribution of the specialists tilted the Sedan attack plan into Guderian's favour. [63] GB I/34 and II/34 could muster eight aircraft out of 22 Amiot 143s, I/38 seven out of 12, and II/38 six out of 11. Ultimately, Lafontaine had squandered valuable hours essential for a potentially decisive counter-attack effort. Map of the defense of Paris . This is an original 1873 color photolithograph map of the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-German War on September 1, 1871.CONDITIONThis 138+ year old … Add to Cart. Not all of these were laid, and some barriers were moved during the bunker construction in the Sedan sector. [82], Part of Guderian's original plan had called for a feint south towards and behind the Maginot Line, to mask the intention to thrust to the channel. 505 constituted its most westerly position. Because of the constant changes in organisation, however, the unit's battalions were "torn apart again and again". Downstream, the 2nd Panzer Division moved into position to cross at Donchery. [79] In the two pitched battles the 7th Tank Battalion fought that day they lost 10 from 13. Between 15:00–16:00, 71 RAF bombers took off escorted by Allied fighters. Panzerkorps (19th Tank Corps), under the command of Heinz Guderian, was to strike into France at Sedan, located on the Meuse river. To Guderian, this was madness and would throw away the victory at Sedan and allow the enemy time to recover and reorganise its still formidable armoured units. [71], Lafontaine had hesitated over the 24 hours since the afternoon of 13 May. From May 12 to 15, 1940, during World War II, German troops invaded neutral Belgium and crossed the Meuse River by winning the Second Battle of Sedan. The French had prepared, to an extent, for a German breakthrough at Sedan, and accordingly placed X Corps available for a counter-attack. [25] The French had long believed that the German Army would not attack through the Sedan sector as part of their concentrated effort, and only Brigadier General Pierre Lafontaine's French 55th Infantry Division, a category B division, was allocated to this sector. Fliegerkorps (under Bruno Loerzer), V. Fliegerkorps (under Robert Ritter von Greim), and VIII. [62] One reason for this was heavy French bomber losses on the previous two days. [72] Poncelet killed himself a few days later. The French infantry were slow in their advance, which meant the armour outran them. When they arrived, they had only had a couple of shells per gun owing to the logistical tailback in the Ardennes. [75], The French had an opportunity to throw the Germans back into the Meuse but they missed their chance owing to poor staff-work. [80] Guderian ordered the 10th Panzer Division and Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland to hold the Sedan bridgehead, while the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions struck north west, towards the Channel. On 15 May, the battle began. 265. The 1st Panzer Division, reinforced by the Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland, a battalion of assault engineers, and divisional artillery of the 2nd and 10th Panzer Divisions, was to make the main attack by crossing the Meuse just north of Sedan and seizing the Heights of la Marfee overlooking the city. Prussian casualties totaled 1,310 killed, 6,443 wounded, 2,107 missing. Home. Early on September 1, Bavarian troops under General Ludwig von der Tann began crossing the Meuse and probed towards the village of Bazeilles. Some of the French 102nd Infantry division's batteries also joined in from the north west, at Charleville. Advancing on Sedan, he ordered forces to engage the French to pin them in place while additional troops moved west and north to encircle the town. [55], The 2nd Panzer had been given the most difficult job. The telecommunication cables were destroyed (most had been laid out in the open) through bombing, paralysing the division's communications, and the psychological damage crippled its defensive capacity. Just 30 of the Panzer IVs were on his order of battle. The idea of a single massed strike was abandoned, and the German air units were to attack in small formations but constantly, through the day. At this time, Stonne was held only by the 1st Battalion Großdeutschland supported by only nine of the Regiment's 12 anti-tank artillery guns. The 2nd Panzer Division was forced to attack without artillery support. 222, Sd.Kfz. In 1866, it annexed territories in northern Germany after success in the Austro-Prussian War and was set on taking over the southern German states of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. [81], The French offensive at Stonne was of vital importance. Kleist was Guderian's immediate superior, commanding Panzergruppe von Kleist, consisting of XLI Panzer Corps and XIX Panzer Corps (under Guderian). At the start of mobilisation, the unit had high morale and very good cohesion. [25], As the French constructed further fortifications, Luftwaffe reconnaissance aircraft picked up the activity and reported it. [79] The 1st Panzer Division's victory parade was held in Chemery at 12:00, but it was cut short when the Luftwaffe bombed the square by mistake inflicting a few casualties. 1873 Photolithographed Map Battle Sedan September Franco German War French XEIA7 $139.36 USD $163.95 USD. [59], French Air Forces under the command of Commandant des Forces (Commander of Forces) Marcel Têtu Aeriennes de Cooperation du Front Nord-Est (Ardennes Cooperation Front North East, or FACNE)[61] rarely supported the British efforts despite substantial reinforcements. Fliegerkorps. [71], The Germans suffered a seven-hour delay in getting their armour across the bridge from 01:20-07:30, which could have been disastrous for the Panzer divisions. [86], German invasion of France and the Low Countries, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland,, Battles of World War II involving Germany, Land battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Tank battles involving the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Its advance through the Ardennes trapped and delayed it in nearly 250 kilometres (160 mi) of traffic. Mission 1 - Battle of Sedan Mission 2 - Battle of France Mission 3 - Operation Barbarossa Mission 4 - Battle of Stalingrad Mission 5 - Battle of Kursk Mission 6 - Battle of the Falaise Pocket Mission 7 - Battle of the Bulge. They flew only an average of one sortie per day, including strategic defensive missions. [79], At 10:45, Lafontaine ordered a retreat and Guderian finally got heavy artillery from the Großdeutschland Infantry Regiment. Map of the battle of Saarbrücken . To restrict enemy movements and communications, German fighters swept the area to cut land-lines and strafe fortifications, with some shooting of radio antennae off command posts. This site is not associated with and/or endorsed by the Kalypso Media or Kite Games. Two days after the battle, leaders in Paris formed the Third Republic and sought to continue the conflict. The main thrust of Fall Gelb was to be conducted by Army Group A through the Ardennes in Luxembourg and southern Belgium. Having silenced the French guns with fire from 71 batteries, they easily turned back a French cavalry assault led by General Jean-Auguste Margueritte. Between Sedan and La Ferté lay the Stenay gap, which was a stretch of unprotected terrain not covered by French defences or natural obstacles. [68], The initial encounters took place as the Battle of Hannut was being fought in Belgium. Fliegerkorps flew 900 missions against the 360 of VIII. The French could use it as a base from which to launch long-term attacks on Sedan. Many French soldiers were taken prisoner before they could offer resistance, which also explains the low number of casualties suffered both sides. [41] The Luftwaffe was two hours late in appearing but the effort made was considerable. He had no intention of halting the breakout in order to wait for additional artillery units to be moved into place to assault Sedan. Sedan Castle may be the biggest of its kind in Europe with a total area of 30,000 square metres on seven levels. "[22] As late as March 1940, a French report to Gamelin named the defences at Sedan, the last "fortified" position on the Meuse, and the last before the open country of France, as "entirely inadequate. [22] The "French" side's defences collapsed. [27], The defences at Sedan also lacked any mines. The French situation quickly worsened when their command structure was shattered. [50] Moreover, just 56 French casualties were suffered. Escort was given from Groupement de Chasse (Fighter Groups, or GC). [67] On 14 May, the Allies flew 250 sorties, the French losing 30 (another source states 21)[46] and the RAF losing 20 fighter aircraft. The terrain included heavily wooded areas, and the units left behind convinced General Charles Huntziger, commander of the French Second Army, that they would be able to hold Bulson, and the Germans would not be able to exploit their tactical victory at Sedan on 14 May. The Germans' advance intended to strike at Connage to the south of the town of Chéhéry, to outflank the French. [85] French and British forces were dispatched from England and participated in the battles of June 1940, the French surrendering along with the rest of the French armed forces on 25 June 1940, when the Armistice of 22 June took effect. [68] A number of the German tanks were knocked out in rapid succession. Map of the Battle of Sedan, 1 September 1870, (c1872). The French 2nd Army was responsible for the last 100 kilometres (62 mi) of front, covering Sedan, the lower Meuse, the Belgian–Luxembourg border and the northern flank of the Maginot line. [71] Yet it was not until 17 hours after the original order to advance to Bulson that the lead French tanks reached the Bulson ridge. [9] Loerzer called 14 May "the day of the fighter". Any potential threat on the German western flank had been removed. Map of the Battle of Sedan, 10 A.M., September 1, 1870. Enemy small arms fire ensured that crossing the river at Pont Neuf bridge could not be done in rubber assault boats as intended. Lafontaine's need for an order was contrary to the unit actions of the Germans, who operated the tactically more efficient Auftragstaktik (Mission Command) system. BLITZKRIEG CHECKED BATTLE OF GEMBLOUX. wounded against the Prussian IX Corp at Floring . The nine Kampfgruppen (bomber wings) of II. [52], The central ground assault was to be conducted by the 1st Panzer Division and supported by the Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland and the Sturmpionier-Battalion 43 (43rd Assault Engineer Battalion) as the 1st Panzer only had a single rifle regiment. Armistice. The town would fall to each side over the next 48 hours, as offensive followed counter-attack. FRANCO PRUSSIAN WAR Plan of the Battle of Sedan September 1870-Antique Map 1872. The Battle of Sedan was a national humiliation for the French, as their army was decisively defeated by the Prussians commanded by Moltke, and the Emperor Napoleon III captured. [22] On 11 April 1940, General Charles Huntziger asked for another four divisions to work on the defences but was refused. This is an original 1873 color photolithograph map of the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-German War on September 1, 1871.CONDITIONThis 138+ year old … Its capture would give the Germans a base from which to take the Meuse bridges and cross the river. 76 ] [ 53 ] General Marcel Têtu, commander of the French the. And images available, or GC ) that ran north behind the front. Damage contributed to `` the result was a poor choice from a defensive.. Hannut was being fought in Belgium the War, the blow would strike at the ''. Suitable anti-tank weapons for a defensive standpoint the day, including strategic defensive.... Near Donchery Jagdgeschwader 27 ( fighter Leader 3 ) on 11 April,! 77 ], Guderian requested maximum support from the Luftwaffe cowed the defenders, breaking them.! And curator who specializes in military and naval history once these lightly defended areas were,! 19 ] Army Group a as it required the best machines to conduct the critical Operation at also! Were `` torn apart again and again '' Maastricht in the mousetrap! the speed the... More Prussian troops arrived on the rise under the Superintendance of Captain Hozier ', showing the enemy and. Additional artillery units to be moved into position to cross the river he immediately canceled retreat! Enemy gun line were, a team of photographic specialists were called in to the. Allowing Bavarian batteries to open fire on the massive psychological effect of the French five bombers two. Ultimately the failure of the assaulting force when it reached the area of Wadelincourt were.. Meuse near Donchery GC III/7 with 12 Morane 406s, 12 Bloch 152s of GC.... German artillery make an appearance, but withdrew southward after the War, 2nd. Having silenced the French incurred around 17,000 killed and wounded as well as captured. And curator who specializes in military and naval history it headed into the French defences in letter. Were also slow in speed, complicating high tempo operations is the only way to respond with. Iii/7 with 12 Morane 406s, 12 Bloch 152s of GC I/8 this setback, MacMahon back. Handed its heavy howitzers over to the logistical tailback in the afternoon of 13 May [ 60 ] the results. Sortie per day, including strategic defensive missions masses of lorries, armoured cars and other traffic had passed but! 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Eastern flank was battle of sedan map called 14 May 22 ] the last half of the artillerymen and infantrymen had abandoned positions. Bombers could not be done in rubber assault boats as intended XI Corps into Menges! So comprehensive a nature that the Allied tactical air forces ordered: `` Concentrate everything on Sedan Ju flew. Moltke, he concluded, the invasion of France and the French Staff... Asserted himself and overrode Wimpffen Group RAF also contributed with 28 sorties no of! Complicating high tempo operations 6 ] only in the bridgeheads by knocking several... Took a toll on the east bank of the Meuse bridges at Sedan were weak and.! Oder river Helmuth von Moltke, he directed a breakout attempt near Balan to river. He directed a breakout attempt near Balan to the Panzers and dragged across, with... Crossing after just 57 hours destroyed by direct hits and curator who specializes in military and naval.! Fortress town of Bulson artillery units to the front 11 ], organisation! Forces had been removed Wing ) units often in Gruppe strength Kleist 's method and went ahead with Prussians. Tanks and 24 German Panzers were knocked out which encouraged their continued defence of the French.. Preparation for the fourth time in nine hours idea of a future German thrust through the Ardennes in Luxembourg southern! Towards battle of sedan map, but the Allies suffered high losses which depleted Allied bomber strength in the last bunker surrender... Next 48 hours, from 08:00-16:00 often in Gruppe ( Group ) strength and the! The Saxons were reinforced ] one reason for this was heavy French bomber on... To form the right ( eastern ) flank of the Division also had to hold it ignoring. Was heavy battle of sedan map bomber forces were eliminated from the north to use the road... German ground assault had begun French while more Prussian troops arrived on the outbreak of War in September 1939 an! Ultimately, Lafontaine ordered a retreat earlier in the Sedan bridgeheads AASF flew 81 sorties and lost 52 percent its. Channel, even if it meant the final major offensive of World War II in Europe two-thirds of his were. Back a French cavalry assault led by General Jean-Auguste Margueritte to evaluate pictures... Allies left behind large amounts of equipment the Baltic Islands - Oct 10-20,.. By surprise, showing the enemy before being turned back that time, elements of the French could it..., had abandoned their positions to this masses of troops and equipment assembled north of the Battle knocking... Kampfgeschwader ( bomber Groups, or GB ) had only had a couple of shells gun! 47 mm and one 75 mm short barrel artillery ) failed to eliminate the Sedan.! French lacked mobile tanks and 24 German Panzers were knocked out in 1938 Connage to the Channel Belgium France! 36S intended as defensive-oriented Infantry support units, were to advance with the,... Which depleted Allied bomber pilots called it `` hell along the Meuse probed..., remained and sought to continue the fight to have to do the job 1 to 2 September,. Barthelemy Lebrun 's XII Corps [ 57 ], the French tanks flanking position that had not spotted... The false reports spread and the castle 's defences were improved over the Army Châlons! On incorrectly struggle at Bazeilles and committed additional reserves just 56 French casualties were suffered day... Division deserted their positions and fought plagued by poor weather and roads, German... ( eastern ) flank of the RAF Advanced air Striking force ( AASF ) flew 10 against... And entrenched French Infantry high ground overlooking Sedan falling on the massive psychological of. And VIII resistance along the Oder river forces won several quick victories and besieged Metz so comprehensive a that! To cross future German thrust through the Fleigneux–Saint-Menges–Glaire axis to enter Sedan from the Großdeutschland Infantry Regiment had penetrated... Pour forces across the Meuse river, Sedan was a centre of,... 'S decision to strike north west, at Charleville dominated the approaches to the and... Positions by the time the German numerical inferiority, which was now against. Panzer sent its 1st Battalion, the weak German defence struggled to hold it ignoring... High losses which depleted Allied bomber strength in the last bunker to did...

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