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who wrote crito

Socrates states that if such is the will of God, he is willing to die. Socrates tries to use REASON (rather than the values embedded in his culture) to determine whether an action is … His points did not have to be encased in long writing to make an impression, as you will see in 'Crito' , a short dialogue that the ancient Greek philosopher wrote. Evidently, Plato's purpose in writing this dialog involved something more than a historical account of the conversation that took place in Socrates' prison shortly before his death. The brief reference to his dream is an example of the popular belief that events may be foretold in that manner. When the public, or any part of the community, are taking those measures or going into that practice, which may issue in ruin, and most certainly will, unless reformed; he who foresees the approaching evil cannot act a benevolent or faithful part, unless he gives warning of the danger, and does his utmost to reform and save his fellow … By setting forth an argument appealing to rational reflection rather than emotional response, the character of Socrates explains the ramifications and justifications of a prison escape for the two friends. Socrates, therefore, constructs an argument for the morality of escaping by saying that first, one is never justified in doing what is morally wrong, even in self-defense or in retaliation for an injury or injustice suffered. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. He has stated on different occasions that he will obey God rather than man, which means that he will not violate the demands of his own conscience in order to do what the state has ordered him to do. ", Summary and Analysis of Plato's 'Euthyphro', An Introduction to Plato and His Philosophical Ideas, The Allegory of the Cave From the Republic of Plato, Plato and Aristotle on Women: Selected Quotes, Moral Philosophy According to Immanuel Kant, The 5 Great Schools of Ancient Greek Philosophy, The Slave Boy Experiment in Plato's 'Meno', Stoics and Moral Philosophy - The 8 Principles of Stoicism, Ph.D., Philosophy, The University of Texas at Austin, B.A., Philosophy, University of Sheffield. An old friend interrupts Socrates’ isolation––a necessary premise for a dialogue, the standard literary vehicle of Platonic philosophy, to begin. His situation was quite different from that of an old man who had lived during those years when the Periclean Age was at its greatest height of achievement. The other considerations that Crito has mentioned, such as money, the loss of a good reputation, and the duty of educating one's children, are only the doctrines of the multitude. In the case of one who is being trained in gymnastics, whose opinion should be sought in regard to praise or blame for what he is doing? If they did not believe alike on these points, any discussion of the question would be useless. They both believe that to commit a wrong is under all conditions a bad thing for the person who commits it. It is simply not true that all laws should be obeyed under any and all conditions. Are we not right in saying that you agreed to be governed according to us in deed, and not in word only?". socrates’s friend and. One point that has frequently been overlooked is the distinction between what is moral and what is legal. Crito should be reminded that it is only the opinion of those who have a clear understanding of what is right and wrong that should influence his decision. The discussion consists of both Crito and Socrates trying to determine whether escape would be a moral decision. Socrates informs him that it will require one more day for the ship to reach Athens, and they will have plenty of time to discuss whatever it is that Crito has in mind. Besides, he is under some small … 3. Under these circumstances, would it be wrong for Socrates to escape from prison in violation of the law that had placed him there? CRITO: Fear not--there are persons who are willing to get you out of prison at no great cost; and as for the informers they are far from being exorbitant in their demands--a little money will satisfy them. 2. Who wrote Crito? He cannot do this without going back on the principles for which he has stood throughout his entire life. 3. Who is Crito? This is indicated when Socrates admits that on two occasions he violated the laws of the city, and he makes no apology for doing so in either instance. Introduction 1. His whole life exhibits a distinctive integrity, and he is determined that it will stay that way to the very end, even if it means staying in prison until his death, Emrys Westacott is a professor of philosophy at Alfred University. Those who were known to have aided him in making his escape would be driven into exile or lose their property and be deprived of citizenship. He then tells Crito to speak if he has anything to say in reply to what has been said. Euthyphro (/ ˈ juː θ ɪ f r oʊ /; Ancient Greek: Εὐθύφρων, romanized: Euthyphrōn; c. 399–395 BC), by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue whose events occur in the weeks before the trial of Socrates (399 BC), between Socrates and Euthyphro. He wanted to deal with the moral issue involved in those situations where individuals are confronted with penalties imposed on them by unjust laws. A young man, falsely imprisoned by his jealous "friend", escapes and uses a hidden treasure to exact his revenge. What is the theme of the Crito? The dialog begins with Socrates asking Crito why he has arrived at so early an hour. Since Crito has nothing more to say, Socrates asks that he be allowed to follow the intimations of the will of God. To Socrates, escape is certainly a viable option. The calm and quiet manner with which Socrates accepts his fate astonishes his visitor, but it is only one more illustration of the extent to which Socrates has achieved control of his feelings and emotions. Socrates is convinced they are wrong in holding that opinion, and he proceeds at some length to set forth his reasons for rejecting the view that they have presented. He will relate what he imagines the many, or people in general, will say if he does escape from prison and go to some foreign land to spend the remainder of his life. I. Socrates on Trial: A Play Based on Aristophane's Clouds and Plato's Apology, Crito, and Phaedo Adapted for Modern Performance (2007), by Andrew David Irvine, is a contemporary play that portrays Socrates as philosopher and man, based upon The Clouds (423 BC), by Aristophanes, and three Socratic dialogues, by Plato, the … Socrates asks Crito to consider for a moment what the officials of the government might say to him under the existing circumstances. If, Crito says, instead of fulfilling your obligations to them, you go away and leave them to take their chances amid all the unfortunate circumstances that may arise, you cannot be held blameless if they should fall into evil ways. Crito has come for the purpose of pleading with Socrates to escape from prison. This has always been his approach, and he is not going to abandon it just because his circumstances have changed. It is this appeal that Socrates finds ringing in his ears. Why then should he refuse to escape prison just because the law requires him to remain there? There was, however, a difference of opinion concerning the purpose of the punishment. The argument that those who benefit from the state and its laws have a duty to respect those laws even when doing so seems against their immediate self-interest is cogent, easy to grasp and is probably still accepted by most people today. He has a number of reasons for believing this is what Socrates should do, and he hopes that by setting forth these reasons he can convince Socrates that it is not only morally right but the part of wisdom for him to act as Crito is urging him to do. Plato's dialog called Euthyphro relates a discussion that took place between Socrates and Euthyphro concerning the meaning of piety, or that virtue usually regarded as a manner of living that fulfills one's duty both to gods and to humanity.It is of particular interest in relation to the fate of Socrates inasmuch as … The Crito is a piece in which Socrates discussed his obligation to accept his punishment of death, however unjust he and his supporters might think it to be. "Phaedo" considers death and the immortality of the soul. A quite different view was held by those who believed that the proper function of punishment was to enable society to get even with the criminal by inflicting upon him an evil that was equivalent to the one he had caused others to suffer. The conversation takes place at an early hour on what proved to be the next-to-the-last day that Socrates remained alive. What Socrates believed in this respect was identical with what the Christians of later centuries taught when they said "Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do." He is not going to change, regardless of what other people think of him or threaten to do to him. If Socrates should go away from well-governed states to Crito's friends in Thessaly, his reception there would be no better, for the people would ridicule him for preaching lofty sentiments about justice and virtue and then betraying all that he has taught in order to gain a little longer life. At this point, Crito pleads with Socrates to take his advice and escape from prison. . And now you have forgotten these fine sentiments, and pay no respect to us the laws, of whom you are the destroyer; and are doing only what a miserable slave would do, running away and turning your back upon the compacts and agreements which you made as a citizen. This might seem at first to be a strange thing for Socrates to do in view of all that he has said concerning the shallowness of the opinions of the many. Crito is forced to admit that Socrates has presented a strong argument with reference to the inadvisability of following public opinion, or even the voice of the majority, when it comes to matters of crucial importance. When a person is seriously ill, is it proper to ask the opinion of the many or the one who is a qualified physician? With Jim Caviezel, Guy Pearce, Christopher Adamson, JB Blanc. If this is true in regard to physical exercise and matters pertaining to health, is it not even more important to consult the opinion of those who have an adequate understanding about what is just and unjust, fair and foul, or good and evil? He gives as his reason that if Socrates refuses to escape and is then put to death, Crito will not only have lost a true friend who can never be replaced, but he will also be censured by many persons who will accuse him of failure to do what he could in order to save the life of a friend. Plato is writing about Socrates who has been put on trial and has been convicted of corrupting the youth of Athems. Plato 's dialogue " Crito " is a composition originating in 360 B.C.E. The basis for the remarks that follow is the "social contract" that exists between the individual citizen and the society to which that citizen belongs. . During all of those years, he had been the recipient of the many benefits that the city bestowed and had often acknowledged his indebtedness to its system of government and social order. Socrates accepted the former of these two views but rejected the latter. The setting for Plato's dialog "Crito" is Socrates' prison cell in Athens in 399 B.C.E. Even if he should escape that disgrace, he will be regarded as a parasite, or one who is seeking favors from the rich and the powerful. For him to run away in order to escape the execution of the court's sentence would not only be a dishonorable act, it would indicate an insincerity on his part since he is not willing to abide by the lofty ideals that have characterized his teachings. Moral questions should not be referred to the opinion of the majority; the only opinions that matter are the opinions of those who possess moral wisdom and really understand the nature of virtue and justice. My means, which are certainly ample, are at your service, and if you have a scruple about spending all mine, here are … His entire life bears witness to the fact that he has accepted the institutions of the society into which he was born, and it is an essential part of the system under which that society operates that its citizens shall respect and obey the decisions of its duly constituted courts. Such accusations could only add to the grief that Crito would already have experienced in the loss of a friend who could never be replaced. He dismisses out of hand Crito's anxiety about what other people will think. Crito should not worry about how his, Socrates', or others' reputations may fare in the general esteem: they should only concern themselves with behaving well. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. In fact, he is a child of the state and has an obligation toward it similar to that of a child to its parents. . Their understanding was not sufficient to enable them to determine if Socrates was really a corrupter of the youth. SOCRATES: About what time? Before them, he will appear as an innocent victim of the injustice, not of law, but of those who have abused the law in order to bring about his destruction. They do, however, believe in the democratic principle that in the administration of the laws all persons should be treated alike. CRITO: Well, I will not dispute with you; but please to tell me, Socrates, whether you are not acting out of regard to me and your other friends: are you not afraid that if you escape from prison we may get into trouble with the informers for having stolen you away, and lose either the whole or a great part of our property; or that even a … Socrates responds by saying, first of all, that how one acts should be decided by rational reflection, not by appeals to emotion. The issue raised in this dialog is an important one, for it has given rise to controversies that have persisted over the centuries, and in certain areas it is still an issue at the present time. It is in the form of a dialog between Socrates and Crito, an elderly Athenian who for many years has been a devoted friend of Socrates and a firm believer in his ethical teachings. conversation that may have been held during such a visit. CRITO: He is used to me now, Socrates, because I come here so often. He is who he is: a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of truth and the cultivation of virtue. The mysterious voice to which he always paid attention was to him the voice of God. CRITO: Indeed it is. They cannot make a person wise or foolish, nor can they cause him to do good or evil. Therefore, Socrates states that to try to avoid his sentence by escaping from prison would be morally wrong. Escaping would, therefore, be a breach of his agreement to the laws of Athens and it would, in fact, be worse: it would be an act that threatens to destroy the authority of the laws. At a later date, Plato's pupil Aristotle left Athens to escape death at the hands of the anti-Macedonians, saying that he wanted to spare the city from another crime against philosophy. Socrates has been sleeping soundly in spite of the fact that he knows the time for his execution is close at hand. Readers wonder why Plato has used dialogues as a tool to communicate with others. Socrates could not go back on his obligations to the city, and unless commanded to do that which in his judgment was morally wrong, he was duty-bound to obey its laws. Such questions are all utterly irrelevant. The only question that matters is: would trying to escape be morally right or morally wrong? It is true that in a democracy, it is the will of the majority that is supposed to prevail, but neither Socrates nor Plato believe in democracy so long as it is interpreted to mean that the opinion of ignorant persons is to be given equal weight with the opinion of those who are well informed. In reply to what Crito has been saying, Socrates expresses his appreciation for the friendship and goodwill that have been displayed and for the zeal that has been manifested in their presentation. Crito explains that he has considerable means himself, all of which he would gladly use for any purpose that would aid in saving the life of Socrates. 4. Who are the characters within the Crito? If Socrates is hesitant about making his escape because he fears that such an action on his part would get his friends into trouble, Crito reminds him that he need have no such fear, for with a small amount of money that his friends would be happy to contribute, they could buy off the informers who would report to the authorities concerning his escape. He has always insisted that the good life is one in which the individual's activities are governed by reason and not by the feelings of the moment. He has been portrayed as a religious man who has spent the greater portion of his life in obedience to what he regarded as a divine command. We cannot be certain about what he would have done under these circumstances, but there is one important difference between Plato and Socrates at the time when the conversation with Crito took place: Socrates was seventy years old, while Plato was only a young man in his early thirties. Socrates does not deny that he has been treated unjustly by the court, and neither does he think that the judges who condemned him were competent to determine the correctness of his religious views or to decide whether he had really been a corrupter of the youth. They will say that his friend Crito might have saved him if he had been willing to furnish the money to purchase his freedom. Crito is wrong in allowing the opinion of the many to influence his judgment. Crito has stated that he would gladly give all the money he has if by so doing he could secure Socrates' freedom, and if that should prove to be not enough, he knows of several friends who would likewise contribute whatever was necessary to accomplish this purpose. Crito believes that Socrates has been conde… Knowing this, Crito has come to urge Socrates to escape while there is still time. 2. The opinion of the many is not necessarily wrong, but neither is it necessarily right. Crito admits there is no adequate reply to an argument of this type on the part of the state, and he continues to listen as Socrates develops still further the charges that could be brought against him in the event that he should escape. Furthermore, if Socrates should feel hesitant about allowing Crito to spend so much in his behalf, there are many more of his friends who are ready and willing to supply whatever amount of money is needed for this purpose. Crito had urged Socrates to return evil for evil, which was a principle accepted by the many, presumably on the assumption that only in this way could the demands of justice be met. Note: There are no breaks in the Crito as Plato wrote it. Written by Plato, this text is a testimony to the great philosopher, Socrates (469-399 BC). study guide crito phil 11001 what is the theme of the crito? These notes on the text were made later, sections beginning or breaking off where a new theme or topic is introduced or dropped. Crito is a dialogue written by ancient Greek philosopher Plato. Crito is a dialogue written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. it must be quite early. This is what Socrates intends to present as he makes his final speech in defense of the position he has taken. Socrates argues against defying the law, even though Crito is willing to help him. Crito has friends in Thessaly, and Socrates could live among them in peace, with no fears that the inhabitants of that place would ever cause him any trouble. Moreover, you might, if you had liked, have fixed the penalty at banishment in the course of the trial — the state which refuses to let you go now would have let you go then. Ought one to accept the penalty imposed on him by legal means that are unjust? Finally, Crito mentions that in case Socrates should leave Athens and go into exile, there are good prospects for his being well received. The dialogue covers the topic of justice, injustice and the appropriate response to both. Directed by Kevin Reynolds. Then, too, he is betraying the members of his own family, especially the children, who are entitled to the nurture, guidance, and education that he could provide by staying alive and doing what is within his power for their welfare. Socrates, in reply, calls attention to the danger that is involved in following public opinion. One reason that Crito advances is based chiefly on what he anticipates people will say in the event that Socrates remains in prison and is put to death. Download: A 28k text-only version is … All of this, Socrates tells Crito, is the voice that he seems to hear murmuring in his ears and that prevents him from hearing anything else. Plato was infamous for his philosophical writings, and not all of his dialogues were lengthy. Still, Crito insists that he has not changed his mind, and Socrates decides to try a different approach to the question. By living in the state for these many years and accepting the benefits it has provided, he has indicated a willingness to accept its laws and regulations and to abide by the decisions of its courts, regardless of what those decisions might be. An enigmatic figure, he authored no texts, and is … Socrates tells him that it is not the opinion of the majority that is most important but rather the opinion of the ones who have an adequate understanding of the issue that is involved. In this, Socrates posits that he has made an implicit agreement with Athens and its laws because he has enjoyed seventy years of all the good things they provide including security, social stability, education, and culture. Before his arrest, he further posits he never found fault with any of the laws or tried to change them, nor has he left the city to go and live somewhere else. What time of day is it when Crito arrives 4. Crito has said that the opinion of the many should be feared because they have the power to put people to death. If he goes to neighboring cities, he will be looked upon by all honest citizens as an enemy. Still, Socrates is not convinced that he should escape from prison or that it would be morally right for him to attempt any such action. It is this point that the dialog is intended to clarify. It cannot make a man wise and it cannot make one foolish. The Crito's distinguished reputation rests largely on the idea of the social contract that Socrates introduces. 5. To return evil for evil may be in harmony with the morality of the many, but as he has indicated before, public opinion when not supported by good reasons is never a safe guide to follow. It does not contain any additional argument to what has been said before, but it is designed to produce a mood of feeling that is appropriate for an elevation of the ethical demands of conscience. He did not believe that two wrongs make a right or that you can cure one evil by committing another one. Because Socrates has been treated in an evil manner, it will be only a matter of justice for him to treat the state in a like manner. This is not the kind of action that is appropriate for one who professes, as you do, to be following the course of virtue. Crito explains that he has been waiting in the prison for some little time but has remained silent because he did not want to disturb Socrates' sleep. The life of Socrates. The Crito records the conversation that took place in the prison where Socrates was confined awaiting his execution. Plato wrote down from memory Socrates' "Dialogues". Socrates has been spared so far because Athens does not carry out executions while the annual mission it sends to Delos to commemorate Theseus' legendary victory over the minotaur is still away. . Socrates has made an effective reply to the arguments advanced by Crito, stating at some length his reasons for believing that it would be wrong for him to escape. To do otherwise would mean a repudiation of the system of law and order that makes living in a civilized society possible. Plato was at this time too young to have been under the same or equal obligation to the state inasmuch as he had not received as much from it. His argument is based on the fact that he is a citizen of the state, having been born, nourished, and educated within its borders. CRITO: Just before dawn. He asks if it is not true that the opinion of some persons should be regarded and the opinion of others be disregarded. . The question was whether or not one is morally obligated to obey laws that are believed to be unjust. A few weeks earlier Socrates had been found guilty of corrupting the youth with irreligion and sentenced to death. He received the sentence with his usual equanimity, but his friends are desperate to save him. Their judgment was not a correct one, and, therefore, Socrates is under no obligation to see that it is carried out. Socrates is not at liberty to reject the decisions of the court because he believes they have gone beyond their jurisdiction or that they have made a wrong decision in his case. Running through the whole dialog, though, one hears the same argument that Socrates gave to the jurors at his trial. Both Socrates and Crito have admitted on previous occasions that one should never intentionally do what is wrong, and now they must decide if they are to abide by that principle or depart from it. Of all Athenians you have been the most constant resident in the city, which, as you never leave, you may be supposed to love . If he had chosen to do so, he could have left the city at any time, but his very presence and participation in the life of the city was evidence of his approval of the way in which its activities had been maintained. Socrates had spent his entire life in Athens. Interestingly, Plato has presented all his knowledge in the form on written dialogues. Socrates does not agree with him and, accordingly, sets forth his reasons for holding that one is obliged to submit to the punishment imposed on him, even though the punishment may be an unjust one. If Socrates should follow the advice of Crito and escape from prison, the Laws might complain that he is breaking the contract that he made with them. Although Socrates lived and died several centuries before the Christian era, his position in this respect was similar to what later came to be known as the Christian view, which forbids one to overcome evil with evil but states rather that evil should be overcome with good. Obviously, it is the opinion of the one person who possesses the necessary relevant information that should be followed. Whatever it does is largely a matter of chance. Socrates (/ ˈ s ɒ k r ə t iː z /; Ancient Greek: Σωκρᾰ́της Sōkrátēs [sɔːkrátɛːs]; c. 470 – 399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens who is credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition of thought. Further, it is always wrong to break an agreement one has made. Socrates never wrote anything down, so when he died, Plato wrote down his teachings and passed his messages on. Socrates then reminds him that to act in that manner would be a case of returning evil for evil, which would contradict what he has already admitted should never be done. The idea that the citizens of a state, by living there, make an implicit covenant with the state, has also been tremendously influential and is a central tenet of social contract theory as well as popular immigration policies with respect to freedom of religion. Furthermore, subsidiary arguments are embedded in the main arguments outlined above. 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