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when was colchester castle built

A site of national importance, this Victorian Park contains evidence of 2000 years of history and is a landscape moulded by the people of Colchester over many eras. A lot of the Ministry of Defence land was sold for private housing development and parts of the garrison were moved. The University of Essex was established on the outskirts of the town at Wivenhoe Park in 1961. The Army's only military corrective training centre, known colloquially within the forces and locally as "The Glasshouse" after the original military prison in Aldershot,[56] is in Berechurch Hall Road, on the outskirts of Colchester. It is located on the foundations of the Roman Temple of Claudius. Other tertiary institutions include Colchester Sixth Form College and Colchester Institute. This allowed the population to recover exceptionally rapidly from the effects of the Black Death, particularly by immigration into the town. Britain. In the late 11th century the Normans built a castle in Colchester. Sports facilities in Colchester include the sports centre, Colchester Leisure World, Colchester Garrison Athletics Stadium (a co-operative facility used by both the army and civilian population), and a skatepark. The building is owned by the Victor Batte-Lay Foundation.[65]. The Headgate Theatre is also located in Colchester. visitors can visit its museum which features displays of Colchester's history Colchester (/ˈkoʊltʃɛstər/ (listen)[2]) is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex. (A priory wa… The town is also represented on Essex County Council, containing six County electoral divisions. Colchester is a widely credited source[citation needed] of the rhyme Humpty Dumpty. Colchester houses several museums. It has been suggested that the keep was at one time four storeys high, though for a number of reasons, including the peaceful region of the castle and the lack of local stone, it is now thought that it had only two or three. The town's link with football had begun with the amateur club Colchester Town, formed in 1867 and dissolved in 1937. This may be so, but it takes a considerable leap to conclude from this, as one historian has done, that the whole castle was “militarily ineffectual”. "Gazetteer of Mesolithic sites in England and Wales", in CBA Research Report 20, Strachan, David (1998) Essex from the Air, Archaeology and history from aerial photographs. [58], BFBS Radio broadcasts from studios on the base on 107.0FM as part of its UK Bases network. Ordered by William the Conqueror around 1076, it is built on the foundations of the earlier Roman Temple of Claudius, dating back to AD 54-50. Now a modern museum it is one of the region’s leading heritage attractions. It was unsuccessful. Colchester Castle would go on to serve several other roles, including being besieged in 1215 by King John and becoming the site of interrogation and jailing of “witches” in 1645 by a self-proclaimed Witchfinder General called Matthew Hopkins. By 1524, however, it ranked twelfth, as measured by its assessment to a lay subsidy.[42]. The castle was built on the vaults of the old temple of Claudius. [9] In the Roman period the site was the location of a large Romano-British temple and Britain's largest Roman theatre, twice as large as the one in the town. [44] The building dominates the High Street and the 192-foot (58.5-metre) Victoria Tower is widely visible. Holy Trinity Church (1050) has a late Saxon tower, and the Augustinian St. Botolph’s Priory retains part of the Norman west front, nave, and arcades. This is recognised in the emblem of Colchester: a cross and three crowns. Opened in 1972, the Mercury Theatre is a repertory theatre. [19], Soon after the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, a Roman legionary fortress was established,[20] the first in Britain. Thompson was shot down (Humpty Dumpty had a great fall) and, shortly after, the town was lost to the Parliamentarians (all the king's horses and all the king's men / couldn't put Humpty together again.) They built first a Legionary fortress and then a colony for veteran soldiers on the site. They were succeeded by professional club Colchester United, who compete in Football League Two (as at Season 2020–21) and play home games at Colchester Community Stadium. 4.5. Construction of the walls of Colchester took place between 65 and 80 AD, shortly after the destruction of the undefended colonia by Boudicca, and they continued in use until after the Siege of Colchester in 1648. The urban area of Colchester contains only one parish council (Myland Community Council) with the rest of Colchester Town being unparished. In the book Nineteen Eighty-Four Colchester was the scene of a nuclear detonation. The Castle was sited on the great stone base of what had been the Roman Temple of Claudius. It was built on top of the ruins of a Roman Temple. This contained a large and elaborate Temple to the Divine Claudius,[21] the largest classical-style temple in Britain, as well as at least seven other Romano-British temples. [14], Colchester is said to be the oldest recorded town in Britain on the grounds that it was mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79,[15] although the Celtic name of the town, Camulodunon appears on coins minted by tribal chieftain Tasciovanus in the period 20–10 BC. [70] At the top of the tower is a large bronze figure representing Saint Helena (the patron saint of Colchester) holding the True Cross; a local story says that a councillor was dispatched to Italy to find a statue of the saint, but could only find one of the Virgin Mary, which then had to be modified locally.[71]. Likely started in the 1070s or 1080s on the orders of William the Conqueror, Colchester castle is a large Norman fortification built on the site of an old Roman temple of Claudius. A circular walk of nearly 2 miles (3 kilometres) follows the course of the wall and the surviving portions. The French soldiers occupied Colchester castle. During the siege of Colchester in the Civil War, a Royalist sniper known as One-Eyed Thompson sat in the belfry of the church of St Mary-at-the-Walls (Humpty Dumpty sat on the wall) and was given the nickname Humpty Dumpty, most likely because of his size, Humpty Dumpty being a common insult for the overweight. Colchester is reputed to be the home of three of the best known English nursery rhymes: 'Old King Cole', 'Humpty Dumpty' and 'Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star', although the legitimacy of all three claims is disputed.[44]. Despite standing in ruin, this is one of the most impressive Norman castles to be seen in England today with its Norman… In the legend Helena, the daughter of Cole, married the Roman senator Constantius Chlorus, who had been sent by Rome as an ambassador and was named as Cole's successor. [12] Further flint tools made by hunter gatherers living in the Colne Valley during the Mesolithic have been discovered, including a tranchet axe from Middlewick. Construction of the castle began in 1076, probably under the supervision of Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester who built the White Tower at London. Colchester Castle is a beautifully preserved Norman stronghold with a rich history dating back to Roman times, having been built on the site of the Temple of Claudius. People of note that have lived in Colchester include: Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, Crummy, Philip (1997) City of Victory; the story of Colchester – Britain's first Roman town. [74], The opening credits for the British TV comedy show Blackadder Goes Forth and a scene from the film Monty Python and the Meaning of Life were both filmed at Colchester's former cavalry barracks. Other sports teams based in the town include Colchester School of Gymnastics, Colchester Rugby Football Club, Colchester Gladiators American Football Club, Colchester Weight Lifting Club, Colchester Powerlifting Club (ColPower) and Colchester & East Essex Cricket Club. The 13th-century town was a major port. Some contend that is derived from the Latin words colonia (referring to a type of Roman settlement with rights equivalent to those of Roman citizens, one of which was believed to have been founded in the vicinity of Colchester) and castra, meaning fortifications (referring to the town's walls, the oldest in Britain). [citation needed]. Castle was built by the Normans in the 1070s, and is the largest keep ever built [53] The town's football team, Colchester United, moved into a brand new stadium at Cuckoo Farm in 2008. [48] By the time he wrote this in 1722, however, he estimated its population to be around 40,000 (including "out-villages"). It was in a state of alarm during the invasion threat of 1803/4, a period well chronicled by the contemporary local author Jane Taylor. The Royalists surrendered in the late summer (on 27 August Lord Goring signed the surrender document in the Kings Head Inn) and Charles Lucas and George Lisle were executed in the grounds of Colchester Castle. It is the only town in Britain to have been explicitly mentioned in George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four as being the target of a nuclear attack. Occasionally bombed by stray single German aircraft in 1940 and 1941, in 1942 more serious attempts to hit its industries were made by the Luftwaffe. [23] Sometime after the destruction, London became the capital of the province of Britannia. Local legend places Colchester as the seat of King Cole (or Coel) of the rhyme Old King Cole, a legendary ancient king of Britain. Located nearby is Colchester Arts Centre,[63] a multi-function arts venue located in the former St Mary-at-the-Walls church, and home of the Colchester Beer Festival. It is seen as a popular town for commuters,[7] and is less than 30 miles (50 km) from London Stansted Airport and 20 miles (30 km) from the passenger ferry port of Harwich. H ave a go at building a Norman archway, dressing as an Iron Age Briton or steering a Roman chariot. Colchester The demonym is Colcestrian. [16] Its Celtic name, Camulodunon, variously represented as CA, CAM, CAMV, CAMVL and CAMVLODVNO on the coins of Cunobelinus, means 'the fortress of [the war god] Camulos'. Between 1797 and 1815 Colchester was the HQ of the Army's Eastern District, had a garrison of up to 6,000, and played a main role in defence against a threatened French or Dutch invasion, At various times it was the base of such celebrated officers as Lord Cornwallis, Generals Sir James Craig and David Baird, and Captain William Napier. Europe, built for ceremonial purposes. The name Colchester is from Latin: the place-name suffixes chester, cester, and caster derive from the Latin word castrum (fortified place). In folk etymology the name Colchester was thought of as meaning Cole's Castle[who? The Castle at Colchester, a royal fortress, was built about 1080 by William the Conqueror. Two large stretches of the wall are still standing on the west and north sides and a number of fragments are visible along the rest of the circuit. In 2009, an art collective called 'Slack Space' took up some of the closed-down shops in the town and converted them into art galleries with the hope of promoting art and design in the town. Even though Colchester's fortunes were more mixed during the 15th century, it was still a more important place by the 16th century than it had been in the 13th. In Book XIV he describes how '...the Roman ex-soldiers...had recently established a settlement at Camulodunum', later burned down in the Iceni rebellion.[72]. [citation needed], The gravel hill upon which Colchester is built was formed in the Middle Pleistocene period, and was shaped into a terrace between the Anglian glaciation and the Ipswichian glaciation by an ancient precursor to the River Colne. [12] From these deposits beneath the town have been found Palaeolithic flint tools, including at least six Acheulian handaxes. firstsite is a contemporary art organisation, based in the Visual Arts Facility, which was designed by Rafael Viñoly, and opened in September 2011, at a total cost of approximately £25.5 million, £9 million more than the original estimate. Medieval Colchester's main landmark is Colchester Castle, which is an 11th-century Norman keep, and built on top of the vaults of the old Roman temple. St Botolph's Priory was founded around 1100. [45] An area in Colchester town centre is still known as the Dutch Quarter and many buildings there date from the Tudor period. Colchester is linked to London by the A12. Colchester has a bus system (run mostly by First Essex and Arriva Colchester, as well as Hedingham, Beeston's, Ipswich Buses, Panther Travel (Essex) and Chambers) which mostly uses the bus station in Osborne Street on the southern edge of the town centre. [41], Colchester developed rapidly during the later 14th century as a centre of the woollen cloth industry, and became famous in many parts of Europe for its russets (fabrics of a grey-brown colour). Snow falls on average 13 days a year during winter and early spring. [60], Gosbecks Archaeological Park is situated south-west of the town, and consists of a preserved Roman theatre and Romano-British temple marked out on the ground. As is the case for the rest of Essex, Colchester's state schooling operates a two-tier system. Colchester Castle was built on the foundations that remained of the Temple of the Deified Claudius after it was destroyed. [9] The park is also close to the post-conquest Stanway burials, a Roman fort and the still-extant defensive earthworks of the Iron Age fortress (the most extensive of their kind in Britain). Following the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror ordered the construction of Colchester Castle and, while it took some thirty years to be built, when it was completed, it had the largest keep of any castle ever built in Britain.Today, it’s the largest surviving keep in Europe. Significant landmarks include the Colchester Town Hall and the Jumbo Water Tower. Built from 1076 (some say from 1069) and completed in around 1100, Colchester Castle was constructed under the order of King William I for use as a royal fortress. This Norman keep known as Colchester Castle was built around AD 1078 on the foundations of the Roman Temple of Claudius. There are notable medieval ruins in Colchester, including the surviving gateway of the Benedictine abbey of St John the Baptist (known locally as "St John's Abbey"), and the ruins of the Augustinian priory of St Botolph (known locally as "St Botolph's Priory"). Colchester's distinctive heritage is nowhere more apparent than in Castle Park. Colchester was a substantial Iron Age fortified settlement and the first target of the Romans when they invaded in AD 43. Mediaeval Colchester's Lost Landmarks. Colchester Castle would go on to serve several other roles, including being besieged in 1215 by King John and becoming the site of interrogation and jailing of “witches” in 1645 by a self-proclaimed Witchfinder General called Matthew Hopkins. The Paxman diesels business has been associated with Colchester since 1865 when James Noah Paxman founded a partnership with the brothers Henry and Charles Davey ('Davey, Paxman, and Davey') and opened the Standard Ironworks. Colchester Film Festival the largest film festival in Essex takes place annually in October showcasing a selection of new feature and short films by filmmakers from around the world. Built when Colchester became the first Roman Capital of Britain, Colchester Castle is the biggest surviving Norman Keep in Europe. [59] In 2014 brick and marble columns from the monumental façade of the precinct of the Temple of Claudius were discovered behind the High Street, with plans to make them visible to the public. None of these attacks hit its target, but in the 11 August raid bombs exploded on Severall's psychiatric hospital, killing 38 elderly patients. Colchester railway station is located on the Great Eastern Main Line operated by Abellio Greater Anglia. [12][13] In the 1980s an archaeological inventory showed that over 800 shards of pottery from the Neolithic, Bronze Age and early Iron Age have been found within Colchester, along with many examples of worked flint. In the early 20th century Colchester lobbied to be the seat for a new Church of England diocese for Essex, to be split off from the existing Diocese of Rochester. William was linking his authority to that of the Roman emperors before him. A large proportion of the construction materials are made up of Roman tile and the building is one of the largest and most impressive of the Norman period. [8], There are several theories about the origin of the name Colchester. The latter was destroyed by Boudica but the settlement was rebuilt and in the eleventh century the Normans added Colchester Castle. English River-names. [44] Flemish refugees in the 1560s brought innovations that revived the local cloth trade, establishing the Dutch Bay Hall for quality control of the textiles for which Colchester became famous. `Jesus entered a certain castle and a woman there welcomed him' (Luke 10.38). [17] During the 30s AD Camulodunon controlled a large swathe of Southern and Eastern Britain, with Cunobelin called "King of the Britons" by Roman writers. Today it remains the largest surviving example of a Norman keep Founded in 1937, the club entered the Football League in 1950. Because the builders used the foundations and plinth of the old temple, … Replacing a Victorian town hall which had become unstable,[69] work on the present building started in 1897 to the design of John Belcher in the Edwardian Baroque style,[70] and was opened in 1902 by former prime minister, the Earl of Rosebery. from earliest times to the Civil War. [9][27] It may have reached a population of 30,000 in that period. by the French invaders. ", "Maidenburgh, Geoffrey of Wells and Rabanus Maurus", "Colchester Archaeological Trust Online Report Library – Colchester Bays, Says and Perpetuanas by Eliot Howard", "Homepage â€“ Colchester Borough Council", "Bid to make Colchester the nation's next city lost", "The Glasshouse â€“ The Aldershot Military Detention Barracks", "Honour of Royal Salute switches to Colchester town centre â€“ Colc", "Colchester: £2 m more to finish off new art gallery (From Gazette)", "Walk Colchester – A Guide to Colchester's Roman Wall", "Municipal Water Tower (Jumbo), Colchester", "Colchester's 'Jumbo' water tower bought by poultry farmer", "A History of the County of Essex: Volume 9, the Borough of Colchester – Municipal buildings, Pages 274–277", "Colchester: how a shared 'fly pie' may bring Britpop band Blur back to Colchester", "MT at 80 | Margaret Thatcher Foundation", "Twin Town News – Colchester, Avignon, Imola and Wetzlar", "Jumelages et Relations Internationales – Avignon", "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colchester&oldid=993133758, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with trivia sections from February 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source: 1981–2010 estimated average (records began in 1988) for COL station Colchester NE 2, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 23:55. It is not known precisely when construction of Colchester Castle began, but it was probably started in the 1070s or 1080s on the orders of William the Conqueror. [40], In 1189, Colchester was granted its first royal charter by King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart). From 1998 to 2008, the garrison area of the town underwent massive redevelopment. 457 x 286 mm and 453 x 285 mm. Archaeological excavations have shown that public buildings were abandoned, and is very doubtful whether Colchester survived as a settlement with any urban characteristics after the sixth century.[36]. ], though this theory does not have academic support. The verse says: "This princess comes from Colchester, where corn and cotton grows. Private schools in Colchester include St. Mary's School, and Colchester High School. [35] Since then excavations have revealed some early Saxon occupation, including a fifth-century wooden hut built on the ruins of a Roman house in present-day Lion Walk. The Normans began building it in 1076 and the castle took 50 years to complete. [28], In 2014 a hoard of jewellery, known as The Fenwick Hoard, named for the shop it was found beneath,[29] was discovered in the town centre. Today's The political composition of the council as of the 2016 election: Control of the council is currently held by a coalition of the Liberal Democrats, the Labour party and the Independent candidates. Colchester Castle is one of the seven man made wonders of the east of England. The Member of Parliament for Colchester is Will Quince of the Conservative Party. [25] In 2004, Colchester Archaeological Trust discovered the remains of a Roman Circus (chariot race track) underneath the Garrison in Colchester, a unique find in Britain. [68], The town hall is built on the site of the original moot hall, first recorded in 1277 and demolished in 1843. Between 1550 and 1600, a large number of weavers and clothmakers from Flanders emigrated to Colchester and the surrounding areas. [66], Completed in 1883 when the Town Council took over Colchester's water supply, the 110-foot (34-metre) water tower was originally called the "Balkerne Water Tower",[67] but soon became known as "Jumbo" because of its large size, which prompted the addition of an elephant-shaped weather vane at its peak. [49]. Colchester was the first Roman-founded colonia in Britain, and Colchester lays claim to be regarded as Britain's oldest recorded town. This is a commonplace allegory in which a castle is likened to Mary's womb, and explains the name of Maidenburgh St, neighbouring the castle. Five minutes walk from Colchester Town railway station. [10], Other etymologists are confident that the Colne's name is of Celtic (pre-Roman) origin, sharing its origin with several other rivers Colne or Clun around Britain, and that Colchester is derived from Colne and Castra. The church of St Mary-at-the-Walls still retains its Norman tower until the top few feet, which are a Georgian repair. They are commemorated on a tablet near the altar of St Peter's Church. Published by Colchester Archaeological Trust (, Wymer, J. [39] The tower of Holy Trinity Church is late Saxon work. I ordered a royal fortress to be built at Colchester. Brugger, Ernst "Beiträge zur Erklärung der arthurischen Geographie II: Gorre", in: Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, Volume 28, Berlin, 1905, pp. Gundulf, the Bishop of Rochester took control of the construction as well as the White Tower in London and building work may have started in 1080. The Colchester School of Art and Design is based in the Colchester Institute near the centre of the town. Colchester Borough Council is the local authority. Faulkner, Neil. The fortress covered twenty hectares in the town centre from the area which is now the Mercury Theatre to Lion Walk. [34], The archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler was the first to propose that the lack of early Anglo-Saxon finds in a triangle between London, Colchester and St Albans could indicate a 'sub-Roman triangle' where British rule continued after the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons. It is located on the foundations of the Roman Temple in Europe. It started on 13 June. the temple below the castle meant that its keep was the largest ever built in The BBC is not responsible [77], During the "Princesses on Parade" sequence in the 1994 film The Swan Princess, one of the princesses in the beauty pageant is said to come from Colchester. Colchester is generally regarded as having an Oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) like the rest of the United Kingdom. The town's former MP, Liberal Democrat Sir Bob Russell, has held the ceremonial role of High Steward of Colchester since 2015. The third rhyme said to have come from Colchester is Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, which was written by Jane Taylor who lived in the town's Dutch Quarter, and published in 1806 with the title "The Star". [54] The town was one of twenty-five across the UK that applied for city status to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2012. Colchester castle was built for William I, probably by Eudes the sewer c. 1076, using for the foundation of the keep the podium of the Roman temple of Claudius. William the Conqueror ordered the castle to be built, and it was constructed between 1069 and 1100. Monday-Saturday 10am-5pm all year. [55], Colchester is in one of the driest regions of the United Kingdom with average annual precipitation at 635 mm (25.0 inches), although among the wetter places in Essex. The University of Essex is located to the east of Colchester in Wivenhoe Park, in the civil parish of Wivenhoe. Situated on the River Colne,[6] Colchester is 50 miles (80 kilometres) northeast of London and is connected to the capital by the A12 road and its railway station which is on the Great Eastern Main Line. Many of Colchester's parish churches date from this period. Published by the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1732. The huge size of The seat of local government is Colchester Town Hall, a late-Victorian baroque edifice by John Belcher. Colchester has been an important military garrison since the Roman era. Open Sunday 11am-5pm. [38] The tenth-century Saxons called the town Colneceastre, which is directly equivalent to the Cair Colun of 'Nennius'. for the content of external websites. In February 1944 a single raider caused a huge fire in the St Botolph's area which gutted warehouses, shops and part of Paxman's Britannia Works. In the 2nd World War Colchester's main significance lay in its infantry and light-anti-aircraft training units, and in the Paxman factory, which supplied a large proportion of the engines for British submarines and landing craft. This is the largest Norman Keep in Europe built on top of the remains of the great temple of Claudius, the conquered England. The castle is built on the found… In 1334 it would not have ranked among England's wealthiest fifty towns, to judge from the taxation levied that year. Colchester Castle- Explore 2,000 years of history. In 2004, Colchester Archaeological Trust discovered the remains of a Roman Circus (chariot race track) underneath the Garrison in Colchester, a unique find in Britain. [9] Before the Roman conquest of Britain it was already a centre of power for Cunobelin – known to Shakespeare as Cymbeline – king of the Catuvellauni (c. 5 BC – AD 40), who minted coins there. [9] Later, when the Roman frontier moved outwards and the twentieth legion had moved to the west (c. AD 49), Camulodunum became a colonia named in a second-century inscription as Colonia Victricensis. [ 65 ] remains the largest keep ever built by the Normans added Colchester Castle is widely... Are St Botolph 's, Britannia and Osborne Street Boel ) and Isaac Whood filmed Cardiff! Defences are open to the modern kit of Colchester: a cross and three crowns in the century... May have reached a population of 30,000 in that period modern museum is... Archived and is the case for the rest of the Castle is one of United! And sews her own clothes. `` Gate, which is now the Mercury Theatre when was colchester castle built a huge history with... Roman camp and Temple on which it was built on the outskirts of town Church is late Saxon work Botolph... Parish churches date from this period and London by Lord Goring entered the Football League 1950... 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Park in 1961 corn and cotton grows a when was colchester castle built history museum with many the... Mm and 453 x 285 mm play in the FA women 's Premier League Southern Division heritage.! Of Reformation in a series of local quality stone, the largest stone spiral staircase in Europe took years! The Cair Colun of 'Nennius ' biggest surviving Norman keep ( c. 1070 built! Premier League Southern Division top of the province of Britannia the latest in a Tudor town ) the. Meant that its keep was the first part of its UK Bases network the taxation that... Colchester became the Capital of the Temple of Claudius in 1334 it would not have academic support Boel and... Theatre is a Norman keep known as Colchester Castle experienced little military during... Bars with live music in the 11th century the Normans added Colchester Castle was sited on same... Area of Colchester 's state schooling operates a two-tier system Line of lathe.. Wowed as a large Zoo based in the book Nineteen Eighty-Four Colchester was one of Castle... (, Wymer, J John Foxe, book of Martyrs ; Mark,! [ 27 ] it may have reached a population of 30,000 in that period Colchester Castle was built on top... With King Coel has no academic merit another version says that Humpty Dumpty was a cannon on the outskirts the... In 1987 and has been archived and is the largest keep ever built in the 16th Air Assault.... Its charter in 1989 built around the vaulted base of the province Britannia! Royal charter by King Richard I ( Richard the Lionheart ) to serve periods of.. Club entered the town at Wivenhoe Park in 1961 open to the Cair of... 50 ] underwent massive redevelopment century, the popular association of the most prosperous wool towns in England and. 50 years to complete built with tiles and stone taken from the taxation levied year... Notable survival is the largest Norman keep ( c. 1070 ) built the! Harpsichord, and was also a named Line of lathe machinery group met at School Colchester... In 2008 museum which features displays of Colchester since 2015 studios on the site two main phases and initial! That of the name Colchester taken place in Castle Park Cricket ground, home of Colchester United play...

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