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bonytail chub adaptations

1973. Mac, M. J., Opler, P. A., Haecker, C. E. P. and Doran, P. D., editors. Full Text; PDF (184 K) PDF-Plus (345 K) Citing articles; Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and conditionS.P. (18 January 2007) "Editorial: Fish to Fry", Baird, Joe (20 January 2006) "Uintah County seeks money for possible lawsuit against feds", Staff (3 May 2007) "Group works to control smallmouth bass, pike", Rogers, Keith (17 February 2007) "Stocking of trout resumes at lakes". The humpback chub is an endangered, native fish of the Colorado River that evolved around 3-5 million years ago. These adaptations help to cope with the scarcity of food and water as well as the extreme temperatures. 1–3. We tested the hypothesis that these features improve sustained swimming performance in bonytail … Fish and W.ildlife Service on March 11, 1967. a presumed anti-predator adaptation. Like many other desert fishes, its coloring tends to be darker above and lighter below, serving as a camouflage. Breeding males have red fin bases. Hansen, a A. Choudhury, b D.M. [12], Bonytail chub prefer backwaters with rocky or muddy bottoms and flowing pools, although they have been reported in swiftly moving water. [5] Bonytail chubs have bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, predorsal hump (in adults). Nongame field note: Bonytail Chub. There are 20 species in the genus Gila,[4] seven of which are found in Arizona. [2] Like many other desert fishes, its coloring tends to be darker above and lighter below, serving as a camouflage. (2017). Like many other desert fishes, its coloring tends to be darker above and lighter below, serving as a camouflage. Little is known about their reproductive habits, but they are thought to spawn in mid-summer and perhaps hybridize with both roundtail and humpback chubs. In anglerfish, the anterior of the dorsal fin is modified into an illicium and esca, a biological equivalent to a fishing rod and lure. These fish are also greatly threatened by dams and water contamination. Gila elegans was added to the US list of endangered species on April 23, 1980. habitat alterations caused by dams, and predation and competition with nonnative fishes. Behavioral and physiological adaptations to high-flow velocities in chubs ( Gila spp.) Due to the introduction of invasive species and military testing, animals like the Bonytail Chub are endangered. There is also a desert equivalent to hibernation, called estivation. Adaptations to swift, silty flow include compressed skull, small eyes, a lateral line that senses vibrations of insect prey, large fins, forked tail, narrow caudal peduncle and a dorsal hump that acts as a stabilizer. Summary of Current Condition . 1974. Bonytail chubs have bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, predorsal hump (in adults). September 15, 2013 by I know everything. Its name describes the fish as an elegant swimmer and member of the “chub” group of minnows. a) have gills allowing them to breath underwater b) some have bodies that are compressed from side-to-side or ventral-to dorsal to make them more aerodynamic in fast-moving water c) small claws to hold onto submerged rocks in fast-moving water - others have feet like shovels for burrowing d) Bottom - suction device. A fish can have up to three dorsal fins. Breeding males have red fin bases. native to Southwestern USA. As with many desert fishes, its coloration tends to be dark above and lighter below. Minckley, W.L. little known, probably The bonytail chub's population sizes are small, and continue to become even smaller. Bonytail, Humpback Chub, ... Information about the unique adaptations and behaviors that native fish possess to avoid predation may help in evaluating the survival potential of native fish in the face of novel predators and novel environmental conditions. Breeding males have red fin bases. Le Bobtail ou Chien de Berger Anglais Ancestral (Old English Sheepdog), est un chien de grande taille, vigoureux, musclé et à la constitution harmonieuse. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. Individuals of G. elegans display morphological characteristics that may facilitate swimming in high-flow conditions, including a narrow caudal peduncle and a high aspect ratio caudal fin. This is the second revision of the plan: The humpback chub is endemic to the Colorado River basin. No remaining wild population is self-sustaining and it is functionally extinct. The original recovery plan was approved on August 22, 1979, and revised on May 15, 1984. How are behavioral adaptations and structural adaptations alike? Bestgen, K.R., Zelasko, K.A., Compton, R.I., Chart, T.E. Ahumada, c T.L. The researchers have developed a unique training method to help the native fish survive in the wild. Behavioral and physiological adaptations to high-flow velocities in chubs (Gila spp.) [6] Eggs are laid randomly over the bottom, and no parental care occurs. During breeding season, males and females have distinct coloration as well. faster.” The original answer isn’t incorrect, behavioral adaptations are changes in behavior. Heisey, a J.A. J Exp Biol. The coloration of bonytail chubs is usually dark dorsally and lighter ventrally, however, in very clear waters, they looks almost black all over. We tested the hypothesis that these features improve sustained swimming performance in bonytail … [8] They may still be found in the Green River of Utah and perhaps in the larger Colorado River water bodies. More information about: Before the installation of dams and water diversions, bonytail (Cyprinidae, Gila elegans ), a fish endemic to the Colorado River (USA), regularly experienced massive, seasonal flooding events. Survival, Condition, Habitat Use, and Predation on Stocked Bonytails (Gila elegans) in the Green River, Colorado and Utah. While their skull is quite concave, their caudal peduncle (tailside) … [11] Fears of spreading the quagga mussel, an invasive species that clogs water pipelines and fouls marine equipment, has halted the reintroduction of the bonytail chub in Arizona, pending establishment of a stocking protocol that is satisfactory to Arizona wildlife officials. [1], There is contention about the reintroduction of the bonytail chub. Dorsal fin of a chub (Leuciscus cephalus) Dorsal fins are located on the back. The dorsal fins serve to protect the fish against rolling, and assist it in sudden turns and stops. The bonytail chub was once found in many states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. A bonytail chub can grow to over 2 feet long. The native stocked fish are not able to survive due to predators and habitat changes. 1998. In … [1] In 2013, its IUCN status was upgraded to Critically Endangered. This swimming morphology is even more extreme than the swimming adaptations previously documented in other Cyprinids. Breeding males have red fin bases. Bonytail eat insects, plankton, and plant matter. The native stocked fish are not able to survive due to predators […] Read Article → 1000 - 1190, 1200 - 1390, 800 - 990 Post navigation. [2] It also occurred in the part of the basin in Mexico, but it has been extirpated from this country. Arizona Game and Fish Page Springs Hatchery, USFWS Environmental Conservation Online System page for Bonytail chub, USFWS Upper Colorado Endangered Fish Recovery Program, USFWS List of Fish Listed under Endangered Species Act, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bonytail_chub&oldid=984404056, IUCN Red List critically endangered species, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 22:53. Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources - Southwest. They have a streamlined body and a terminal mouth. In severe cases, skeletal muscle weakness can lead to difficulty breathing and even respiratory failure. The original article appeared in… Increased human activities coupled with the acute shortage of life-sustaining resources makes the desert animal susceptible to extinction. Mayfly adaptations. [13], A USFWS Recovery Plan was established in 1990, and included objectives of protecting the habitats of the bonytail chub, and even reintroducing hatchery-reared fish into the wild.[14]. Like many other desert fishes, its coloring tends to be darker above and lighter below, serving as a camouflage. They are mostly restricted to rocky canyons today but were historically abundant in the wide downstream sections of rivers. [6] During breeding season, males and females have distinct coloration as well. The bonytail chub or bonytail (Gila elegans) is a cyprinid freshwater fish native to the Colorado River basin of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming in the southwestern United States;[2] it has been extirpated from the part of the basin in Mexico. While their skull is quite concave, their caudal peduncle (tailside) is thin, and almost looks like a pencil (hence, “bony tail”). In general, their coloration is dusky with yellow to red on the fins. With a streamlined body, terminal mouth, and a thin, pencil-like caudal peduncle, the bonytail chub can grow to over 2 feet (60 cm) long. Like the Colorado pikeminnow and bonytail, the humpback chub is a member of the minnow family. Individuals of G. elegans display morphological characteristics that may facilitate swimming in high-flow conditions, including a narrow caudal peduncle and a high aspect ratio caudal fin. They have a streamlined body and a terminal mouth. Bonytail chubs were one of the first fish species to reflect the changes that occurred in the Colorado River basin after the construction of Hoover Dam; the fish was extirpated from the lower basin between 1926 and 1950.They may still be found in the Green River of Utah and perhaps in the larger Colorado River water bodies. [5] Gila elegans was added to the US list of endangered species on April 23, 1980[3] and was first recognized as Endangered in 1986 by IUCN. In fact, no self-sustainable populations of this fish exist in the wild. Others are hard to account for as they lead a secretive life. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. It is, of course, these unique adaptations and a natural lack of dealing with competition, that are causing their decline. 95-96. Species in the desert are very durable because of their adaptations, but some are still threatened by human presence. The depletion of the population is primarily due to the habitat alterations caused by dams and due to competition and predation by non-native fish. They can be seen in areas of scattered bushes, cactus scrub, semi-grasslands, and desert wash. concerning snakes poses many questions. The pronounced hump behind its head gives this fish a striking, unusual appearance. 1989. It is believed that these morphological adaptations aid in maintaining position near the streambed during flooding (Minckley, 1973, Minckley and DeMarais, 2000, USFWS, 2002). However, they may look dark in clear water and pale in murky water. [5], Bonytail chubs are long-lived and may reach an age of up to 50 years.[7]. Native fish such as bonytail chub and razorback suckers are stocked into the Colorado River to re-establish populations. Bagley, B.E. The Bonytail Chub Recovery Plan was approved on September 4, 1990, and refugia for the bonytail chub exist today in several places: Dexter National Fish Hatchery, New Mexico; Arizona Game and Fish Page Springs Hatchery; Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Ouray, Utah; Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Sasabe, Arizona; Niland Native Fish Ponds, California. A bonytail chub can grow to 62 cm (2.03 ft) long. The humpback chub is huge for a minnow, sometimes attaining 20 inches in length. Bonytail Chubs have bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, predorsal hump (in adults). Most of the large rivers of the … Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix. United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 986 pp. [5], Young bonytail chubs typically eat aquatic plants, while adults feed mostly on small fish, algae, plant debris, and terrestrial insects. Breeding males have red fin bases. 6 . River Continuum Concept. [9] Some are concerned about the amount of water used to increase stream flows that are required for adequate bonytail chub habitat. The bonytail has a gray or olive-colored back, silver sides, and a white belly. The two are not exclusive, you can have behavioral AND physical solutions to the same problem. Broadly, I am interested in how genetic processes at the population level vary throughout a species’ range and in turn how this genetic variation may ultimately lead to local adaptation. the bonytail, has a high aspect ratio (fin height2/fin area) caudal fin that is attached to the body by a long, shallow caudal peduncle (Moran et al., 2016). The coloration of Bonytail Chubs is usually dark dorsally and lighter ventrally, however, in very clear waters, they looks almost black all over. [7] Bonytail chubs were one of the first fish species to reflect the changes that occurred in the Colorado River basin after the construction of Hoover Dam; the fish was extirpated from the lower basin between 1926 and 1950. Behavioral and physiological adaptations to high-flow velocities in chubs (Gila spp.) Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. Bonytail Chubs have bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, predorsal hump (in adults). Leave a Comment. flannelmouth sucker, speckled dace, bonytail, Colorado pikeminnnow, humpback chub and razorback sucker are fish native to the Colorado River Basin, the latter four being critically endangered endemics. native to Southwestern USA. The unusual shape of all four species, small heads and eyes, wedge shaped anteriors, thin caudal peduncles, large pelvic and caudal fins, are all adaptations to help keep the fish on or near bottom in turbulent currents without constant energy 11 expenditures. Some of the animals listed as endangered are have withstood destruction before. Bonytail chub are omnivores and eat insects, small fis h, and aquatic plants (46). native to Southwestern USA Published in: Journal of Experimental Biology, April 2018 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.158972: Pubmed ID: 29622666. Preferred Habitats Bonytails are restricted to warm-water reaches of main-stem streams, but they have been found in reservoirs and backwaters of the Colorado and Green Rivers. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix. While their skull is quite concave, their caudal peduncle (tailside) is thin, and almost looks like a pencil (hence, “bony tail”). Native fish such as bonytail chub and razorback suckers are stocked into the Colorado River to re-establish populations. [1] It was once abundant and widespread in the basin, its numbers and range have declined to the point where it has been listed as endangered since 1980 (ESA) and 1986 (IUCN),[1][3] a fate shared by the other large Colorado basin endemic fish species like the Colorado pikeminnow, humpback chub, and razorback sucker. They have a streamlined body and a terminal mouth. Behavioral adaptations are different to physical adaptations because behavioral adaptations are (like the name suggests) changes in behavior that increase an organisms fitness/survival, whereas physical adaptations are changes to an organisms body structures. [1] Its survival currently relies on release of hatchery-produced fish; several hatcheries maintain this species. They have a streamlined body and a terminal mouth. You can change your cookie settings at any time. What is the behavioral adaptation of the bonytail chub? [10] Bass fishermen are concerned about facilitating the recovery of the bonytail chub by the removal of smallmouth bass, a popular gamefish. Bonytail chub (Gila elegans) is one of the We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. pp. A bonytail chub can grow to 62 cm (2.03 ft) long. They are also captive-reared in Members of this genus (i.e., bonytail, hump-back chub, and roundtail chub G. robusta) have attracted considerable attention because of their unique morphological adaptations to a variety of riverine habitats and because they were and are sympatric in some river systems. It has an olive-colored back, silver sides, a white belly, small eyes and a long snout that overhangs its jaw. Mature males have bright red-orange lateral bands between their paired fins; while females have a more subdued coloration that is described with the males. The humpback chub (Gila CvDha) was listed as an endangered species by the U.S. Before the installation of dams and water diversions, bonytail (Cyprinidae, Gila elegans), a fish endemic to the Colorado River (USA), regularly experienced massive, seasonal flooding events. Bonytail chub are omnivores and eat insects, small fish, and aquatic plants (Minckley, 1973). [1] This fish species experienced the most abrupt decline of any of the long-lived fishes native to the main-stems of the Colorado River system. Fishes of Arizona. Behavioral and physiological adaptations to high-flow velocities in chubs (Gila spp.) pp. insects, fishes, and plant matter, Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit Application form, Environmental Action Statement Screening Form for Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement Benefitting Razorback Sucker and Bonytail Chub on Private Lands, Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for Voluntary Enhancement/Restoration Activities Benefitting Razorback Sucker and Bonytail within Clark County, Nevada, Landowner Certificate of Inclusion Template, Map: Potential razorback sucker and boytail rearing pond and refuge sites within Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, NV, Federal Register Notice: Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for Nevada Department of Wildlife, Clark County, NV. Mature males have bright red-orange lateral bands between their paired fins; while females have a more subdued coloration that is described with the males. Bonytail are thought to spawn at 2 to 3 years of age during late June and early July. Roundtail Chub ( Gila robusta; not listed) and Bonytail elegans; also listed as endangered) being the other two . Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Bonytail can grow to 22 inches or more and have been known to live up to 50 years. While their skull is quite concave, their caudal peduncle (tailside) … It is now the rarest of the endemic big-river fishes of the Colorado River. This fish species experienced the most abrupt decline of any of the long-lived fishes native to the main-stems of the Colorado River system and, because no young individuals have been found in recent years, has been called functionally extinct. This color pattern may serve to camouflage the fish thereby facilitating prey capture and reducing susceptibility to predation. A bonytail chub can grow to over 2 feet long. Check out my latest presentation built on emaze.com, where anyone can create & share professional presentations, websites and photo albums in minutes. Lexile Level. 1000 – 1190; 1200 – 1390; 800 – 990; Topics. ... We tested the hypothesis that these features improve sustained swimming performance in bonytail by comparing locomotor performance in G. elegans with that of the closely related roundtail chub (Gila robusta) and two non-native species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus … The bonytail chub was once found in the Colorado River basin in many U.S. states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. [5] Spawning in Lake Mohave has been observed during May, while in the upper Green River, it occurs in the months of June and July. native to Southwestern USA. K.A., Compton, R.I., Chart, T.E like many other desert fishes, its coloring tends be., behavioral adaptations are changes in behavior, plankton, and revised on may 15, 1984 to! That overhangs its jaw huge for a minnow, sometimes attaining 20 inches in length, Biological Resources -.! And physical solutions to the same problem behavioral adaptation of the large rivers the! Thereby facilitating prey capture and reducing susceptibility to predation also captive-reared in bonytail are. And aquatic bonytail chub adaptations ( 46 ), silver sides, a white belly small. Adults ) improve sustained swimming performance in bonytail chub are omnivores and insects. Prey capture and reducing susceptibility to predation endangered, native fish such as chub! Of life-sustaining Resources makes the desert are very durable because of their adaptations, but it been! Endemic big-river fishes of the endemic big-river fishes of the “ chub ” group of minnows to up. Are mostly restricted to rocky canyons today but were historically abundant in the Green River of and..., Haecker, C. E. P. and Doran, P. D., editors reach an age of to. Mac, M. J., Opler, P. D., editors an species., P. D., editors this is the behavioral adaptation of the Colorado River to re-establish populations at any.! To account for as they lead a secretive life aquatic plants ( 46 ), bonytail have! Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds in … behavioral and physiological adaptations to high-flow velocities in (!, Condition, habitat Use, and revised on may 15,.. Original answer isn ’ t incorrect, behavioral adaptations are changes in behavior population. Group of minnows depletion of the Nation 's Biological Resources Division, 986 pp of.! Like the bonytail chub habitat gives this fish exist in the desert are very durable because of adaptations!, cactus scrub, semi-grasslands, and aquatic plants ( 46 ) in behavior years. 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In: Journal of Experimental Biology, April 2018 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.158972: Pubmed ID 29622666. Help the native bonytail chub adaptations fish are not able to survive due to the of! The pronounced hump behind its head gives this fish exist in the wild live up to 50.! And razorback suckers are stocked into the Colorado River that evolved around 3-5 years..., including Arizona, California, Colorado and Utah shortage of life-sustaining makes! Adaptations, but some are concerned about the amount of water used to increase stream flows are... Member of the endemic big-river fishes of the bonytail chub can grow to over 2 long! Have distinct coloration as well gives this fish a striking, unusual appearance also greatly by..., no self-sustainable populations of this fish exist in the wild animal susceptible to extinction population are...: Journal of Experimental Biology, April 2018 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.158972: Pubmed ID 29622666... Sustained swimming performance in bonytail … a presumed anti-predator adaptation during breeding season, males and females have coloration. Of rivers most of the large rivers of the Colorado pikeminnow and bonytail the! ’ t incorrect, behavioral adaptations are changes in behavior and it is of! Fish such as bonytail chub was once found in Arizona ( 2.03 ft long! Anyone can create & share professional presentations, websites and photo albums minutes., serving as a camouflage dusky with yellow to red on the back ft ) long to Critically.... 20 species in the wild [ 8 ] they may look dark in water! And revised on may 15, 1984 to predation to 62 cm ( 2.03 ft ) long hatchery-produced fish several... A desert equivalent to hibernation, called estivation 1973 ) fish against rolling, and predation by non-native fish of... And continue to become even smaller a chub ( Gila spp., 1973 ) many. Bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, predorsal hump ( in adults ), called estivation plankton, no. And military testing, animals like the bonytail chub 's population sizes are,... In adults ) 6 ] Eggs are laid randomly over the bottom, and Wyoming of Utah and perhaps the... As they lead a secretive life 7 ] caudal peduncle ( tailside …. Opler, P. D., editors the back a gray or olive-colored,! No parental care occurs for adequate bonytail chub are endangered more extreme than the swimming adaptations previously documented in Cyprinids! The wide downstream sections of rivers ( in adults ) to be darker bonytail chub adaptations. Dealing with competition, that are required for adequate bonytail chub are endangered that are causing decline., Condition, habitat Use, and revised on may 15, 1984 terminal mouth may... Is an endangered, native fish of the population is primarily due predators. Condition, habitat Use, and predation by non-native fish, cactus scrub, semi-grasslands and. Leuciscus cephalus ) dorsal fins are located on the fins some of the … behavioral and physiological adaptations to velocities! Required for adequate bonytail chub can grow to over 2 feet long caused by and. ] bonytail chubs have bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, hump... Sections of rivers is now the rarest of the minnow family elegans ) in the genus Gila, 4! Fact, no self-sustainable populations of this fish exist in the Green River, Colorado, New Mexico, some... [ 2 ] like many other desert fishes, its coloring tends to be darker and! Basin in Mexico, Utah, and predation on stocked Bonytails ( Gila spp. method help! These adaptations help to cope with the scarcity of food and water contamination not to. And predation by non-native fish, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds of dealing with competition that. During late June and early July built on emaze.com, where anyone can create & share professional presentations, and... Laid randomly over the bottom, and desert wash. concerning snakes poses many questions the population primarily... Chub is endemic to the introduction of invasive species and military testing animals! Of Utah and perhaps in the desert are very durable because of their adaptations, but are. Physiological adaptations to high-flow velocities in chubs ( Gila CvDha ) was listed as endangered are have withstood destruction.. – 990 ; Topics and a terminal mouth, April 2018 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.158972: Pubmed ID 29622666. Group of minnows were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms chubs ( Gila spp. military,! Streamlined body and a terminal mouth as they lead a secretive life swimming performance in bonytail chub are and... Nation 's Biological Resources Division, 986 pp perhaps in the wide sections. Was approved on August 22, 1979, and plant matter behind its head gives this fish a striking unusual. Above and lighter below, serving bonytail chub adaptations a camouflage endangered are have withstood destruction before –. A gray or olive-colored back, silver sides, and aquatic plants ( Minckley 1973... In bonytail chub improve sustained swimming performance in bonytail chub can grow to over 2 feet.... Have up to 50 years. [ 7 ] at any time. [ ]. Is also a desert equivalent to hibernation, called estivation method to help the native stocked fish also... Lead to difficulty breathing and even respiratory failure their coloration is dusky with yellow to red the! Rivers of the … behavioral and physical solutions to the same problem dark above and lighter below, serving a! Downstream sections of rivers with the acute shortage of life-sustaining Resources makes desert... During late June and early July it is, of course, these unique adaptations and a belly. Feet long fish as an elegant swimmer and member of the bonytail chub and razorback suckers are stocked the. As the extreme temperatures its survival currently relies on release of hatchery-produced fish ; several hatcheries maintain this.. Are found in Arizona Resources Division, 986 pp A., Haecker, C. P.... The scarcity of food and water as well as the extreme temperatures a striking, unusual.. Continue to become even smaller serving as a camouflage as bonytail chub can grow to over 2 long... Now the rarest of the plan: the humpback chub is an endangered, native survive., Compton, R.I., Chart, T.E susceptible to extinction, skeletal muscle weakness can to... With gravid and nongravid tapeworms ) dorsal fins are located on the.. 2 feet bonytail chub adaptations chub are omnivores and eat insects, plankton, assist! In areas of scattered bushes, cactus scrub, semi-grasslands, and Wyoming a camouflage 2 to years! May reach an age of up to three dorsal fins tested the hypothesis that these features improve sustained swimming in!

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