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humpback chub adaptations

In this discussion, we summarize the conclusions of that assessment, which can be accessed at Docket No. Finally, regarding downlisting criterion 4, a number of the management actions have been achieved, such as items (2), (3), and (6); a number of the actions are ongoing and still needed, such as items (1), (7), and (10); and a number of the actions are no longer considered needed for the species, such as items (4), (5), (8), and (9). The humpback chub, a member of the minnow family, was first documented in the Grand Canyon in the 1940s and in the Upper Colorado River Basin in … When the 2002 recovery goals were published, robust mark/recapture population monitoring efforts had just begun in the upper basin. Law enforcement offices must be notified within 72 hours of the death, unless special conditions warrant an extension. (2) In areas outside of the six core populations, angling activities may include targeted catch and release of humpback chub in accordance with Federal, State, and tribal fishing regulations. 1533) and its implementing regulations (50 CFR part 424) set forth the procedures for determining whether a species meets the definition of “endangered species” or “threatened species.” The Act defines an “endangered species” as a species that is “in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range,” and a “threatened species” as a species that is “likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.” The Act requires that we determine whether a species meets the definition of “endangered species” or “threatened species” because of any of the following factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) Disease or predation; (D) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. humpback chub, trying to isolate the condi- tions responsible for recent improvements in humpback chub population and recruit- ment trends. Monitoring documented a substantial population decline in this area during the 1990s from unknown causes, but most likely due to limited recruitment, followed by a strong increase in the 2000s (Service 2018b, pp. Open for Comment, The Equal Opportunity Clause's Religious Exemption, Federal Contract Compliance Programs Office, Economic Sanctions & Foreign Assets Control, Safety and Environmental Enforcement Bureau, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement BSEE, National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2020, Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents, Promoting the Use of Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence in the Federal Government, Addressing the Threat From Securities Investments That Finance Communist Chinese Military Companies, Humpback Chub Species Status Assessment Lit Cited, Humpback Chub Species Status Assessment w Appendix B&C, Status Throughout a Significant Portion of Its Range, Creation and Maintenance of Refuge Populations, Translocation and Stocking of Humpback Chub, Catch-and-Release Angling of Humpback Chub, Chemical Treatments Supporting Humpback Chub, Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes, PART 17—ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS, https://www.federalregister.gov/d/2020-00512, MODS: Government Publishing Office metadata, https://www.fws.gov/​mountain-prairie/​science/​peerReview.php, *         *         *         *         *         *         *. Charismatic is hardly the best word to describe the humpback chub, a fish with a frowny eel face jammed onto a sportfish body in a way that suggests evolution has a sense of humor. That adaptation coupled with large, curved fins allows the species to maintain position in the turbulent flows. These markup elements allow the user to see how the document follows the Although humpback chub and roundtail chub cannot be distinguished in the field when they are small, researchers assume that a meaningful amount of these young fish are humpback chub. Humpback chub (Gila cypha) The humpback chub is an endangered, native fish of the Colorado River that evolved around 3-5 million years ago. documents in the last year. 126-133). Rep. No. For Start Printed Page 3595example, the cooperative agreement establishing the Upper Basin Recovery Program expires in 2023. Therefore, the risk of extinction is currently low, and therefore the species is not in danger of extinction. The humpback chub's canyon habitats are largely protected by Federal, State, and tribal land ownership, and humans primarily use humpback chub habitats for recreation. Where the best available information allows the Services to determine a status for the species rangewide, that determination should be given conclusive weight because a rangewide determination of status more accurately reflects the species' degree of imperilment and better promotes the purposes of the Act. Some stressors, such as low river flows and warm water temperatures, may also act cumulatively to increase predatory, nonnative fish. Be sure to leave feedback using the 'Feedback' button on the bottom right of each page! The humpback chub was listed prior to the 1996 distinct population segment (DPS) policy, and the U.S. A preliminary technical report that is currently undergoing peer review recommends that genetic diversity of the species be managed as three units: Black Rocks & Westwater Canyon, Desolation and Gray Canyons and Cataract Canyons, and the Grand Canyon (Bohn et al. We expect to revise the recovery plan for humpback chub when this rulemaking process is complete. documents in the last year, 236 01/21/2020 at 8:45 am. It is important to continue to protect humpback chub from intentional angling pressure in the six core populations (five extant and one extirpated) because of their importance to the recovery of the species. Historically, humpback chub inhabited the swift and turbulent waters in canyons of the Colorado River and three of its tributaries: the Green and Yampa rivers in Colorado and Utah, and the Little Colorado River in Arizona. Humpback chub are typically omnivores with a diet consisting of insects, crustaceans, plants, seeds, and occasionally small fish and reptiles. The Lower Basin— Although the Grand Canyon population is the only population of humpback chub in the lower basin, this population includes: A core population area in the Little Colorado River and nearby mainstem Colorado River; multiple aggregations of humpback chub in the Colorado River downstream; and individuals translocated into tributary habitats in Havasu Creek and the upper Little Colorado River. These two species do overlap with humpback chub in portions of the mainstem Colorado River. documents in the last year, 1475 Subsequent to those approvals, under this proposed 4(d) rule, the Service would no longer regulate the take associated with maintenance of that population. However, over the past 10 years both of these populations have stopped declining and have stabilized (Service 2018b, p. 101). The humpback chub is grey or olive colored on its back, with silver sides and a white belly. (2) The Service must approve, in advance and in writing: (ii) Any stocking of humpback chub into any of the six core populations. If environmental conditions change, such as reduced river flow or increased water temperature from long-term drought, nearby populations of nonnative predators could rapidly colonize upper basin humpback chub habitats. Warmer temperatures generally allow individual humpback chub to grow larger and more quickly, but warmer water may also allow predatory warm-water, nonnative fish to invade and expand into humpback chub habitats. We will coordinate with tribes in the range of the humpback chub and request their input on this proposed rule. Why we need to publish a rule. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) are the largest concern because they prey on native fish (Johnson et al. publication in the future. The Upper Basin Recovery Program coordinates and implements the majority of management actions for the four extant and one extirpated upper basin populations, while the Glen Canyon Dam AMP undertakes management actions for the mainstem Colorado River in the lower basin. Start Printed Page 3598Reasonable consideration by the States and tribes for incidental catch of humpback chub in the six core populations include: (1) Regulating tactics to minimize potential injury and death to humpback chub if caught; (2) communicating the potential for catching humpback chub in these areas; and (3) promoting the importance of the six core populations. The adequacy of the recovery goals, however, was not reviewed by the court, because the court found that the plaintiffs could not challenge an alleged failure for a recovery plan to provide for the conservation of the species. Hydroclimate projections predict that decreased warm-season runoff will reduce river flows, primarily from increased frequency and severity of drought, which further result in warmer water temperatures (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 2016, i-ii). Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. documents in the last year, 111 These methods include mechanical removal within occupied humpback chub habitats, including, but not limited to, electrofishing, seining, netting, and angling, or other ecosystem modifications such as altered flow regimes or habitat modifications. 412, 93rd Cong., 1st Sess. A thorough review of the taxonomy, range and distribution, life history, and ecology of the humpback chub is presented in the SSA report (Service 2018b, pp. If DPSs are designated, criteria for recovery of humpback chub will Although the species has no natural defense mechanisms, the habitats occupied by humpback chub may limit impacts from nonnative species because of the more arduous hydrological conditions of canyons. In 2002, the humpback chub recovery goals supplemented and amended the 1990 recovery plan, and provided objective and measurable demographic criteria and recommendations for site-specific management actions needed for recovery (Service 2002). Under Scenario 1, conditions would severely degrade within both 16 and 40 years, primarily in the Upper Basin. That adaptation coupled with large, curved fins allows the species to maintain position in the turbulent flows. A qualified person may take humpback chub by performing a chemical treatment in accordance with Federal, State, and tribal regulations that would support the conservation and recovery of humpback chub, provided that reasonable care is practiced to minimize the effects of such taking. The current resiliency of the large core population in the lower basin and the current resiliency and redundancy of the four populations in the upper basin decrease the risk to the species from stochastic and catastrophic events, such that the species currently has a low risk of extinction. (iv) Eliminating wild refuge populations if conditions are deemed inadequate for conservation of the species or are deemed detrimental to the six core populations. (1) For treatments upstream of occupied humpback chub habitat: (i) Service approval is not required; and. Chemical treatments could support a variety of activities to assist in the conservation of humpback chub, including certain other actions described in this proposed 4(d) rule. We find that endangered species status is not appropriate for the humpback chub because the species currently demonstrates sufficient individual and population resiliency, redundancy, and representation across both the upper basin and lower basin populations, such that the potential extirpation of multiple populations is not likely to occur now or in the short term. This proposed 4(d) rule includes actions to facilitate conservation and management of humpback chub where they currently occur, and may occur in the future, by eliminating the Act's take prohibition for certain activities. This demonstrates that considering each population's resources and conditions is a more useful tool than considering one single MVP. Recent monitoring efforts up to 2017 documented increases in relative abundance of these aggregations and associated catch rates since 2014 (Pillow et al. New sampling techniques documented an unprecedented number of juvenile chubs in Cataract Canyon, further indicating that this population persists (Ahrens 2017, p. 2). Written comments: You may submit comments by one of the following methods: (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. 16 U.S.C. Those two populations, Dinosaur National Monument (extirpated) and Desolation and Gray Canyons (extant), experience periodic fluctuations in smallmouth bass density, demonstrating the latent risk. States and tribes may enact Federal, State, and tribal fishing regulations that address catch-and-release angling. The President of the United States issues other types of documents, including but not limited to; memoranda, notices, determinations, letters, messages, and orders. 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